Libertad condicional / Probation

La libertad condicional es una medida alternativa a una pena privativa de libertad, como la prisión o el arresto domiciliario, que contemplan los ordenamientos jurídicos de algunos países, y que es posible imponer en la sentencia cuando se cumplen ciertos requisitos establecidos en la ley, que le permite al condenado por un delito cumplir su sanción penal en libertad, aunque sujeto a ciertas obligaciones o bajo ciertas condiciones, por ejemplo, no cometer nuevos delitos o faltas. En caso de incumplir tales condiciones, la persona a la cual se le ha concedido la libertad condicional debe cumplir su condena en la cárcel.

Del mismo modo, esta figura es contemplada en ciertos sistemas legales como una medida de rehabilitación, que le permite al condenado, tras cumplir una cierta proporción de la pena impuesta y otros requisitos, terminar su condena en libertad, aunque sujeto a ciertas condiciones.

Probation is a sentence which may be imposed by a criminal court, in lieu of incarceration. A criminal who is "on probation" could be considered as convicted of a crime, but has served only part of the sentence in prison, or has not served time at all. In cases of deferred adjudication, after completing probation, the offender might be cleared of the conviction. In most jurisdictions, probation is a sentencing option for misdemeanors and many felonies (these are commonly called "probationable" offenses), but not for higher-order felonies, such as capital crimes, forcible rape, and many others.

An offender on probation is ordered to follow certain conditions set forth by the court, often under the supervision of a probation officer. Offenders are ordinarily required to refrain from subsequent possession of firearms, and may be ordered to remain employed, abide to a curfew, live at a directed place, obey the orders of the probation officer, or not leave the jurisdiction. The probationer may be ordered as well to refrain from contact with the victims (such as a former partner in a domestic violence case), with potential victims of similar crimes (such as minors, if the instant offense involves child sexual abuse), or with known criminals, particularly co-defendants. Additional restrictions can include: a ban on possession or use of alcoholic beverages, even if alcohol was not involved in the original criminal charges. Offenders on probation might be fitted with an electronic tag (or monitor), which signals their whereabouts to officials. Also, offenders have been ordered to submit to repeated alcohol/drug testing or to participate in alcohol/drug or psychological treatment, or to perform community service work.

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